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bash is short for Bourne Again SHell. It is one of the common Unix shells and the default shell for Linux. It is a simple programming language with choices, loops, function definitions making it suitable for various automated operating system tasks.
Example basic commands
|apropos topic||you need a command, but don't have a name and therefore want to list all commands who have topic in their description|
|cd path||change current directory to path|
|cd ..||change current directory to parent directory|
|ls||list all files in current directory|
|ls *.u8||list all files matching pattern '*.u8' in current directory, for example 'log.u8', 'trash.u8', 'old.u8'|
|man topic||you know the name of a command, but not how to use it and therefore want to examine its manual|
|mv name.txt newname.log||move the file named name.txt to newname.log|
|rm trash.txt||remove the file named trash.txt|
- Debian wikia - details some of the basic commands